The intrinsic and extrinsic barriers to education can be complex and multi-layered. Motivation is a key factor in whether or not someone pursues education, and can be both an intrinsic and extrinsic barrier. Inclusion is another important factor, as some people may feel excluded from the educational system due to their socio-economic status, race, or disability. These barriers can lead to a feeling of hopelessness and low self-worth, which can further discourage someone from pursuing education.
What is inclusive education?
South African education is following global trends and moving toward inclusion (i.e. learners with disabilities, impairments, and persons who have historically been disadvantaged in terms of access to curriculum are being included into mainstream schools).
What this means is that, rather than providing specialized education for learners with disabilities in separate institutions (such as special schools), the focus is now on ensuring that these learners have access to quality education in mainstream schools.
There are many reasons for this shift in policy, but one of the key motivations is the belief that all learners benefit from being educated together. Inclusive education also provides opportunities for social interaction and integration, which can help break down barriers between different groups of people.
However, while inclusive education is a widely accepted concept in principle, there are still many challenges to be addressed in order to make it a reality in practice. These challenges can be divided into two main categories: intrinsic barriers and extrinsic barriers.
The new Constitution states that all people are entitled to equal rights and opportunities. The document also focuses on the importance of recognizing differences, which implies an inclusive approach to education in the sense that pupils should be educated equally regardless of their race or religion.
However, the inclusion of all learners in education is not always possible, as there are various intrinsic and extrinsic barriers that can impede this process.
One of the main intrinsic barriers to inclusion is motivation. Motivation is a key factor in the success of any learning process, and it is essential for all learners to be motivated in order to achieve their full potential. Unfortunately, many learners do not have the necessary motivation to succeed in school, and this can often lead to them being excluded from the educational system altogether.
Another significant intrinsic barrier is ability. Some learners may have difficulty understanding certain concepts or may not be able to keep up with the pace of the classroom, which can again lead to exclusion.
There are also a number of extrinsic barriers to inclusion. One of the most significant of these is poverty. Many learners come from families who are struggling to make ends meet, and this can often lead to them being unable to afford the necessary resources for their education, such as books, uniforms and transport. Another major extrinsic barrier is discrimination. Some learners may be discriminated against on the basis of their race, gender or social status, which can again lead to them being excluded from educational opportunities.
Despite the various intrinsic and extrinsic barriers to inclusion, it is important to remember that all learners have the right to an education. In order to ensure that all learners are able to access education, it is essential that we address the various barriers that can impede this process.
Motivation, ability and discrimination are all areas that need to be addressed in order to ensure that all learners are able to access education. By addressing these barriers, we can ensure that all learners are able to benefit from the educational system and reach their full potential.
According to Engelbrecht et al. (1999: viii), it is only possible if one education system is responsible for educational delivery, rather than two (i.e. mainstream and special education systems). However, in order for it to be successful, schools, classes, and instructors must be willing to adapt as well as supported in doing so.
No research has as yet been conducted to establish the effectiveness of inclusive education in South Africa. However, there is anecdotal evidence that inclusive education can be effective when all role-players work together and are committed to making it work.
It is widely accepted that inclusion cannot happen without the full commitment of everyone involved: teachers, support staff, school management, parents and most importantly, learners themselves. Motivation is a key factor in inclusion. Motivated learners are more likely to succeed than those who are not motivated. It is therefore important to identify what motivates each learner and to try to build on that motivation.
Inclusive education means that all learners, regardless of their physical, intellectual, social, emotional or other differences, are welcomed, valued and supported in the learning environment. It recognises that every learner is unique and that individual differences should be celebrated rather than seen as problems to be fixed.
Inclusive education is not a new concept. It has its roots in the work of pioneers such as Maria Montessori, Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky and Rudolf Steiner, who all emphasised the importance of taking individual differences into account when planning learning experiences. In recent years, inclusive education has been given renewed impetus by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD), which recognises the right of all people with disabilities to an inclusive education.
The South African Constitution also recognises the right of all learners to an inclusive education, and the South African Schools Act requires that schools provide inclusive education. However, in practice, many schools are still not fully inclusive. This is often due to a lack of awareness of what inclusion actually means, and to negative attitudes towards difference.
There are two types of barriers to inclusion: intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic barriers are those that exist within the individual, such as a learning disability or physical impairment. Extrinsic barriers are those that exist in the environment, such as attitudinal barriers or a lack of resources.
There is never been a formal ban in Canada. Many classes have included students with a wide range of special education requirements. The distinction now is that these kids are given the right to access the curriculum and receive a curriculum that is suited to their learning needs.
Inclusive education is based on the belief that all children, regardless of their abilities, should be given the opportunity to learn side by side in the same classroom. This inclusive approach to education can help break down barriers between children, families and communities. It can also lead to better educational outcomes for all children involved.
There are many different types of inclusive education programs. Some programs focus on providing support to children with specific needs, while others work to mainstream all children into the same classrooms. Inclusive education programs can be found in both public and private schools.
There are a number of intrinsic and extrinsic barriers which can prevent inclusive education from being successful. Intrinsic barriers are those which come from within the child, such as a lack of motivation or interest in learning. Extrinsic barriers are those which come from outside the child, such as a negative attitude from teachers or classmates.
In order to overcome these barriers, it is important to have a well-designed inclusive education program in place. This program should be designed to meet the needs of all children involved. It should also be properly implemented and monitored to ensure that it is effective.