India is a country of great agricultural importance. The Green Revolution was a movement that aimed to increase agricultural productivity in India. While the Green Revolution had many positive effects, it also had some negative consequences.
Positive effects of the Green Revolution in India include an increase in food production, improved water management, and increased employment opportunities. The Green Revolution also led to the development of new technology and new methods of farming. These advances helped India become self-sufficient in food production and increased the country’s export potential.
However, the Green Revolution also had some negative effects. One of the biggest problems was that it led to the over-exploitation of natural resources, such as water and land. This resulted in environmental degradation, which continues to be a problem in India today. The Green Revolution also favored large-scale farmers, which led to the displacement of small-scale farmers. This created economic inequality and social injustice.
Overall, the Green Revolution had both positive and negative effects on India. While it helped increase food production and export potential, it also led to environmental degradation and social inequality.
In British-controlled India in 1943, the world’s worst recorded food crisis took place. The Bengal Famine killed roughly 4 million people that year in eastern India (which incorporated present-day Bangladesh). Initially, the problem was blamed on a severe food shortage in the region.
However, research conducted decades later showed that the Bengal Famine was actually caused by a combination of factors, including war-time policies implemented by the British government, as well as long-term structural problems in India’s agricultural system.
The Green Revolution was a set of research and development projects aimed at increasing agricultural productivity in developing countries. India was one of the first countries to benefit from this initiative, which began in the 1960s. The Green Revolution led to increased production of high-yielding varieties of crops, expanded irrigation infrastructure, and the use of modern agrochemicals and technologies. These changes resulted in a significant increase in India’s food production and helped to avert future famines.
However, the Green Revolution also had some negative impacts. One of the most serious problems was the increased dependency of small farmers on chemical inputs, such as fertilizers and pesticides. This dependence made these farmers more vulnerable to fluctuations in input prices and left them at the mercy of the often monopolistic agrochemical companies.
Another problem was the spread of “water-intensive” crops, such as rice and wheat. These crops require large amounts of water for irrigation, which has led to the overuse of groundwater resources in many parts of India. This has resulted in a decline in water tables and an increase in conflicts over water access between different user groups.
The Green Revolution also had some positive impacts. One of the most significant benefits has been the increased production of food crops, which has helped to improve food security in India. The Green Revolution has also contributed to the development of India’s rural infrastructure, including roads, power lines, and irrigation systems.
In recent years, there has been a growing movement among Indian farmers towards more sustainable forms of agriculture. This “sustainable” or “organic” agriculture focuses on using traditional knowledge and practices, as well as more environmentally-friendly inputs. While this type of agriculture is still in its early stages of development, it holds promise for the future of India’s farming sector.
However, Indian economist Amartya Sen (Nobel Prize for Economics winner, 1998) has shown that while food scarcity was a factor in causing the problem, a more significant cause was widespread anxiety about World War II.
India’s Green Revolution was a period of time when India’s agricultural sector underwent rapid modernization. India had long been an agrarian economy, with the majority of its population dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. The introduction of new, high-yielding varieties of seeds, improved irrigation facilities, and the use of modern pesticides and fertilizers helped increase crop yields. India’s grain production more than doubled between 1960 and 2000.
The Green Revolution had several positive effects on India’s economy. India became self-sufficient in food production, freeing up resources that were previously devoted to imports. The increased food production also led to lower food prices, which benefited consumers. India’s export surplus of agricultural products allowed the country to earn valuable foreign exchange reserves. The Green Revolution also helped India’s small and marginal farmers, who often did not have the resources to adopt new technologies.
However, the Green Revolution also had some negative effects. The use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers led to environmental pollution. The increased use of groundwater for irrigation led to water scarcity in some areas. The Green Revolution also favored large farmers over small farmers, as the latter could not afford the expensive inputs needed for modern farming. As a result, the gap between rich and poor farmers widened. India’s Green Revolution thus had both positive and negative effects on the country’s economy and society.
The Green Revolution, which began in 1967 and ended in 1978, transformed India from a food-scarce nation to one of the world’s major agricultural powers. Until 1967, the government largely concentrated on increasing agricultural areas. However, population growth was outpacing food production dramatically. As a result, it was necessary to take immediate and strong measures to improve yield right away.
India’s first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, laid the foundation of Green Revolution in India.
The term ‘Green Revolution’ was first used by William Gaud, who was the Administrator of U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) during 1961-1969. Mr. Gaud made a visit to India in 1963 and noticed that India was facing an acute food crisis due to the following reasons:
– India had a large population and it was growing at a rapid pace. The population growth rate was 2.5% per annum whereas the food production growth rate was only 1.5% per annum.
– India depended mainly on monsoon rains for irrigation and a failure in monsoon led to drought and famine.
– India had a very low yield per hectare as compared to other countries. The average yield of wheat in India was only 400 kg/ha whereas in the USA it was 2540 kg/ha and in Mexico, it was 3160 kg/ha.
– India had a very primitive type of agriculture and outdated technology.
– There was a lack of capital and trained manpower.
After noticing all these problems, William Gaud suggested that India needed a Green Revolution like the one which took place in Mexico during 1940s. He suggested that India should grow high-yielding varieties of seeds, use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation facilities on a large scale. India followed his suggestions and launched the Green Revolution in 1967.
The main features of India’s Green Revolution were as follows:
– Introduction of High Yielding Varieties (HYV) of seeds: India imported high-yielding wheat seeds from Mexico and started their cultivation in Punjab, Haryana, and Western Uttar Pradesh which had the ideal conditions for its growth. India also developed its own HYV seeds of rice, maize, bajra, and jowar with the help of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR).
– Use of Chemical Fertilizers: The increased use of chemical fertilizers played a very important role in increasing crop production.
– Use of Pesticides: India also started using pesticides on a large scale to protect crops from pests and diseases.
– Irrigation Facilities: India built a large number of dams and canals for irrigation purposes. The Bhakra Nangal Project, Hirakud Dam Project, and the Sone Canals were some of the major irrigation projects launched during that time.
– Farm Mechanization: India also started using farm machinery like combine harvesters, thrashers, and tractors on a large scale.
The Green Revolution in India led to an increase in food production and India was able to achieve self-sufficiency in food grains by the early 1980s. India’s per capita food grain production has more than doubled since the Green Revolution. India is now the world’s second-largest producer of food grains. India’s wheat production increased from 12 million tonnes in 1966-67 to 85 million tonnes in 1999-2000. India’s rice production increased from 20 million tonnes in 1966-67 to 62 million tonnes in 1999-2000.