Utilitarianism, deontological, and virtue theory ethics are all different ways of thinking about what is right and wrong. Virtue ethics is based on the idea that there are certain virtues that are good, and that we should aim to cultivate these virtues in ourselves.
Utilitarianism is based on the idea that the right thing to do is whatever will produce the most good for the most people. Deontological ethics is based on the idea that there are certain rules or principles that we should follow, regardless of what the consequences may be.
Each of these theories has its own strengths and weaknesses, and it is up to each individual to decide which one makes the most sense to them. What is important is that we think about these things carefully and try to make the best choices we can in our lives.
Utilitarianism is the idea that the moral value of an act is determined solely by its utility in increasing happiness. Utility, on the other hand, may be defined as pleasure and preference gratification. Virtue refers to a set of ideas and actions based on high ethical principles.
The essential difference between these two theories is that utilitarianism is a consequentialist theory, which means that it focus on the outcomes of actions, while virtue ethics focus on the character of the person who performs the action.
A key question in ethical decision making is whether we should focus on the good or bad consequences of our actions (the ends), or whether we should focus only on following rules (the means).
A virtue can fall into a larger context of principles. Each person has a set of underlying values that influence his or her system of beliefs, attitudes, and concepts. These two ideas, namely as virtue and utilitarianism, are contested from person to person.
The three different types of ethical systems are deontological, utilitarianism and virtue ethics. People view the world and make decisions differently due to these systems.
Virtue ethics is an ethical theory that emphasizes the role of character and virtue in moral decision making. Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that holds that the best course of action is the one that maximizes utility, which is usually understood as maximizing happiness or pleasure and minimizing pain or unhappiness. Deontological ethics is an ethical theory that holds that the right thing to do is determined by a set of rules, regardless of the consequences.
In the first place, according to Philippa Foot’s text on Vili and Utilitarianism, usefulness encourages people to perform the wrong thing “if appropriate action is taken to be that which produces desirable states of affairs; and then consequentialism becomes synonymous with utilitarianism” (1979, p. 179). For example, we might consider an illustration from Bernard Williams’s work Jim and the Indians.
The main characters in this story are Jim, the doctor and Indians. Jim is going to cut the Indians’ heads off and he thinks it is right to do so because it will make more people happy than if he did not do it. The doctor, on the other hand, is against this plan because he knows that the Indians will suffer and he does not want to be responsible for their suffering.
The second reason why utilitarianism is often seen as a bad thing is that it can lead to discrimination. For example, if we take the view that what is good for the majority is what should be done, then this could lead to discrimination against minority groups. This is because the majority may not have the best interests of the minority at heart, and so they may make decisions that are not in the minority’s best interests.
Lastly, utilitarianism can be seen as a form of egoism, which is another reason why it is often criticized. Egoism is the view that we should do what is in our own self-interest, and utilitarianism can be seen as a form of this because it says that we should do what will produce the most good. However, many people see egoism as a bad thing because it can lead to people acting in ways that are harmful to others.
So, overall, utilitarianism has some good points, but it also has some major flaws. These flaws mean that it is often critiqued and not seen as the best ethical theory.
Deontological ethics, on the other hand, is an ethical theory that focuses on duty and rules. This means that, according to deontology, we should do what is our duty, even if it goes against our self-interest or what would produce the most good.
There are two main types of deontology – rule deontology and agent-centered deontology. Rule deontology says that there are certain rules that we should all follow, regardless of the consequences. For example, one of Immanuel Kant’s famous rules is the categorical imperative, which says that we should only act in ways that we could will to be universal laws.
Agent-centered deontology, on the other hand, says that we should act in ways that are good for ourselves. This is because, according to agent-centered deontology, we are the most important beings in the universe and so we should look after ourselves first and foremost.
Deontology has some good points, but it also has some major flaws. One of the main problems with deontology is that it can lead to people doing things that are bad for others. For example, if someone believes that they have a duty to kill someone, then they might do this even if it harms innocent people.
Virtue theory focuses on a person’s good or negative qualities rather than right or wrong. This idea emphasizes the moral character, as opposed to deontology, which emphasizes obligations and regulations. Because of the value aspect, this was called a health care theory.
The most important virtues in healthcare are:
Utilitarianism is the theory that the best action is the one that produces the most good or happiness. This can be applied to health care by making sure that all treatments and procedures produce the greatest good for the patient while also taking into consideration the Hippocratic Oath.
Deontological ethics is based on a rule or set of rules. This means that an action is only considered ethical if it follows these pre- set rules. In healthcare, deontology could be used when making decisions about end of life care or abortion.